Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical evergreen tree that is native to Southeast Asia and has been used for centuries for its medicinal properties. The primary active compounds in kratom are a group of alkaloids, which are naturally occurring chemical compounds that interact with the human body in various ways. In this article, we will explore what alkaloids are, what mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine are, how they work and interact with the brain, and how the percentage content of these alkaloids in kratom powders, capsules, liquid shots, and chewables is determined.
Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring nitrogen-containing compounds that are found in a wide variety of plants, including kratom. These compounds have a variety of effects on the human body, ranging from stimulating to sedating, and are often used for medicinal purposes. Alkaloids are chemically diverse and can be classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and biological activity. Some of the most well-known alkaloids include caffeine, cocaine, and morphine.
Mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine are two of the most abundant alkaloids in kratom and are responsible for the majority of its effects on the human body. Mitragynine is a partial agonist of the mu-opioid receptor, meaning it binds to the receptor and activates it to a lesser extent than a full agonist, such as morphine. 7-OH-mitragynine is a more potent partial agonist of the mu-opioid receptor than mitragynine. The interaction of these alkaloids with the mu-opioid receptor results in pain relief, mood enhancement, and relaxation.
Mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine interact with the mu-opioid receptor in the brain to produce their effects. When these alkaloids bind to the receptor, they activate it, leading to a release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine. This release of neurotransmitters results in pain relief, mood enhancement, and relaxation. The degree of these effects depends on the potency of the alkaloids and the dose consumed.
In addition to their interaction with the mu-opioid receptor, mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine have been shown to have some activity at other receptors in the brain, including the delta-opioid receptor and the 5-HT2A receptor. These interactions are thought to contribute to the overall effects of kratom, but the exact mechanisms are not yet fully understood.
The amount of mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine in kratom products can vary greatly, depending on the strain of kratom used, the growing conditions, and the processing methods. To determine the percentage content of these alkaloids in kratom products, a process called high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be used. This process allows for the separation, identification, and quantification of specific compounds in a sample, including mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine. The amount of milligrams of mitragynine in a particular product is sometimes expressed as ‘MIT’ (i.e., labeling a product 120MIT infers it contains 120 mg of mitragynine).
It is important to keep in mind that the percentages listed on kratom product labels are not standardized, and the accuracy of these numbers can vary greatly from one product to another. Additionally, the potency of kratom can also vary greatly between strains, growing conditions, and processing methods.
When it comes to determining the amount of mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine in kratom powders, it is important to keep in mind that one gram of kratom powder can contain anywhere from 0.5 to 2.5% mitragynine, depending on the strain and growing conditions. This means that a single gram of kratom powder can contain anywhere from 5 to 25 milligrams of mitragynine.
Finally, kratom chewables are a newer form of kratom product that are designed to be chewed like gum. The amount of mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine in kratom chewables can vary greatly depending on the size of the chewable and the amount of kratom powder used to make it. As a rough estimate, a kratom chewable containing 80% mitragynine can contain anywhere from 64 to 128 milligrams of mitragynine.
In conclusion, understanding the content of mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine in kratom products is important for determining the potency and effectiveness of the product. However, it is important to keep in mind that these numbers are not standardized and can vary greatly from one product to another. As always, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any kratom product, and to always start with a low dose to assess its effects.